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Rice starch as surface treatment of paper has been used in paper production in China since 700 CE.
In addition to starchy plants consumed directly, 66 million tonnes of starch were being produced per year worldwide by 2008.
It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin.
Cellobiose phosphorylase cleaves to glucose 1-phosphate and glucose; the other enzyme—potato alpha-glucan phosphorylase can add a glucose unit from glucose 1-phosphorylase to the non-reducing ends of starch. The other product, glucose, can be assimilated by a yeast.Romans used it also in cosmetic creams, to powder the hair and to thicken sauces.Persians and Indians used it to make dishes similar to gothumai wheat halva.Plants produce starch by first converting glucose 1-phosphate to ADP-glucose using the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. The enzyme starch synthase then adds the ADP-glucose via a 1,4-alpha glycosidic bond to a growing chain of glucose residues, liberating ADP and creating amylose.Starch branching enzyme introduces 1,6-alpha glycosidic bonds between these chains, creating the branched amylopectin.Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as energy storage.The insoluble, highly branched starch chains have to be phosphorylated in order to be accessible for degrading enzymes.The enzyme glucan, water dikinase (GWD) phosphorylates at the C-6 position of a glucose molecule, close to the chains 1,6-alpha branching bonds.The same type of bond is found in the animal reserve polysaccharide glycogen.This is in contrast to many structural polysaccharides such as chitin, cellulose and peptidoglycan, which are bound by beta bonds and are much more resistant to hydrolysis.