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Thus, in the mitochondrial gene pool of the Okhotsk people, haplogroup Y was major.This genetic feature is similar to those of populations currently living around the lower regions of the Amur River, such as the Ulchi, Nivkhi, and Negidal (Table 2).The average YAP frequency of the 33 populations was 9.2%, coinciding with published data of Chinese populations.Primi [or Pumi] has the highest YAP frequency (72.3%), which is also the highest YAP among all the eastern Asian populations studied. Analysis of three polymorphisms in Bidayuh ethnic of Sarawak population: A report from Malaysia African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4544-4549, 30 May, 2011 DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.2241 Available from Alu element was originally inserted on the chromosome of the Subsaharan African populations, which explains the lack of YAP in the Asian population.56.67% of Bidayuh subjects possess the ancestral state, while the remaining 43.33% of subjects have the derived state of the allele (Table 3).M96 originated in Africa and later dispersed to Middle East and Europe about 20,000 years ago (Hong et al., 2008) For more details on the YAP lineage genetic component (and possible migratory path) of the Ainu, see this page.Mt DNA haplogroups of 38 individuals were classified according to mt DNA lineages known in northeastern Asian people.Comparisons of mt DNA haplogroup frequencies between the Okhotsk people and other Asian populations revealed that the genetic structures of the Okhotsk people are very similar to those of populations currently living around lower regions of the Amur River and the Ainu of Hokkaido.
A hitherto unknown migratory lineage, carriers of the X haplogroup has been detected.This element, referred to as the Y Alu polymorphic element is present at a specific site on the Ychromosome in some humans and absent in others.One such Alu insertion is the Y Alu polymorphic element (YAP). The discovery of DE macrohaplogroups in Nigerians report a new very rare deep-rooting YAP clade (Figure 1). “The Y chromosome Alu polymorphism (YAP, also called M1) defines the deep-rooted haplogroup D/E of the global Y-chromosome phylogeny .The YAP occurred in 17 populations studied including Tibetan (36.0%), Naxi (37.5% and 25.5%), Zhuang (21.3%), Jingpo (12.5%), Miao (11.8%), Dai (11.4%, 10.0%, 3.3% and 2.0%), Yi (8.0%), Bai of Yunnan (6.7% and 6.0%), Mongol of Inner Mongolia (4.3%), Tujia of Hunan (2.6%), Yao (2.2%) and Nu (1.8%). Using the genetic information, combined with the knowledge of ethnology, history and archaeology, the origin and prehistoric migrations of the ethnic groups in China, especially in Yunnan Province were discussed. The small percentage of YAP found in Bidayuh ethnics suggest that the probability of population admixture have taken place many years ago …M96 biallelic polymorphism is a single base substitution polymorphism, where the base G has been substituted to C (G C).…In none of the samples of the present study any YAP insertion was found as is shown in figure I. In all Middle Eastern Muslim populations the YAP insertion is found to be in the frequency of 11-25% but none of the North Indian and South Indian population had this insertion (Deka et al. The sub-haplogroup DE*, presumably the most ancient lineage of the D/E haplogroup was only found in Africans from Nigeria , supporting the “Out of Africa” hypothesis about modern human origin.The study was carried out to evaluate the YAP in Muslim isolate population of Punjab since it is believed that all migrations to this part of continent took place from Middle East and Central Asia and in neighbouring Pakistan many groups exhibit this insertion (Qamar et al. The sub-haplogroup E (E-M40), defined by M40/SRY4064 and M96, was also suggested [that it] originated in Africa [3-6], and later dispersed to Middle East and Europe about 20,000 years ago [3,4].Among other native American tribes, X haplogroup has also been detected in small numbers in the Yakima, Sioux and Navajo tribes, and to greater numbers among the Ojibway, Onecta, and Nuu-Chah-Nulth tribes.The X haplogroup thought to have entered America around 34,000 B.SATO, Takehiro, et al., Mitochondrial DNA haplogrouping of the Okhotsk people based on analysis of ancient DNA: an intermediate of gene flow from the continental Sakhalin people to the Ainu Anthropological Science; ISSN:0918-7960; VOL.117; NO.3; PAGE.171-180; (2009) Full text version Abstract: In order to further understand the genetic status of the Okhotsk people, who were distributed in southern coastal regions of the Okhotsk Sea during the 5th–13th centuries, nucleotide variations in the hypervariable region (HVR) and the coding regions of mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) were analyzed.Targeting the coding regions provides reliable genetic information even from ancient DNAs that may have suffered post-mortem damage.